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Negative paper

The many improvements made to the process in France, however, along with the expiration of the patents in 1852, made it a notable success, especially with enthusiasts and artists such as Charles Le Nègre, Henri Le Secq, Charles Marville and Gustave Le Gray in France. Those using calotypes formed photography circles and societies: the Calotype Society in England, a circle around Robert Adamson in Scotland, the Roman Photographic School (Caffè Greco group), and several other groups in France within the Manufacture de Sèvres and the Société Héliographique. The process, because of the long exposure time, was not totally suited to portraits, it was popular for outdoor and travel photography and still lifes.

Louis Désiré Blanquart-Évrard improved the wet paper negative process, enabling the calotype to take off in France starting in 1847, releasing the Talbot procedure from its patent and facilitating its adoption. The new approach reduced the amount of handling required to prepare the paper for exposure, shortened exposure times, and improved the resulting image. The Lille-based experimenter would go on to develop several other variants of paper negatives based on albumen, serum and whey.

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